Thomas Graham (Chemist) – Bio, Birthday, Family, Age & Born
Thomas Graham (chemist)

Thomas Graham was a British chemist known for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases. He is regarded as one of the founders of colloid chemistry.

Born: Dec 21, 1805, Glasgow, Scotland
Died: Sept 16, 1869, London, UK
Nationality: Scottish
Fields: Chemistry
Institutions: Anderson’s Institution, University College London
Known for: Graham’s Law, Dialysis
Notable awards: Royal Medal (1838, 1850), Copley Medal (1862)

About Thomas Graham

Notable for pioneering the medical practice of dialysis and for establishing the scientific field of colloid chemistry, this nineteenth-century scientist is also remembered for formulating an important scientific theory and formula known as Graham’s law of effusion.

Before Fame

After earning a master’s degree from the University of Glasgow, he taught chemistry at the University of London and the Royal College of Science and Technology.


Apart from his scientific work, he held the high-ranking United Kingdom governmental position of Master of the Mint.

Family Life

He grew up in Glasgow, Scotland, as the son of a businessman.


He and German biologist and physician Rudolf Virchow were both nineteenth-century recipients of the prestigious Copley Medal.

Information related to Thomas Graham (chemist)

  • Graham’s law – Graham’s law of effusion was formulated by Scottish physical chemist Thomas Graham in 1848. Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. This formula can be written as…
  • Gaseous diffusion – Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride through semipermeable membranes. This produces a slight separation between the molecules containing uranium-235 and uranium-238.
  • Dialysis – In medicine, dialysis is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy.
  • Colloid – In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid; the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture.
  • Fick’s laws of diffusion – Fick’s laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855. They can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient,. Fick’s first law can be used to derive his second law which in turn is identical to the diffusion equation.
  • People associated with the University of Strathclyde
  • Masters of the Mint
  • Scottish chemists
  • Recipients of the Copley Medal
  • Royal Medal winners

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Latest information about Thomas Graham updated on September 15, 2020.

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